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The voice that nature has given to man is able to transmit sounds not only in conversation and expression of emotions, but also when singing. The melody of the human voice is very rich, its palette is multicolored, and the ranges of sound heights are very individual. These criteria allowed a person to define a separate genre of vocals in art.

The concept itself was defined and designated in Latin (vocalis – “sounding”). A vocalist is a musician who uses his or her voice as an instrument. It may be the low sounding and the singing notes of the upper register. Bass or soprano, baritone or mezzo-soprano, Alto or tenor are different types of singing voices. The category of vocalists includes not only singers of classical parties, but also performers of recitatives and artistic recitation. Classical composers always write their works, treating the vocalist’s voice as an independent musical instrument, taking into account its features and capabilities.

Singing voices are divided into types based on the range of sounds, the height of which is determined by the individual capabilities of the vocalist. Assigning a voice to a specific type is a very important task. Bass, Alto, soprano, tenor-only a specialist can determine what this range is. Moreover, the vocalist’s singing range may change over time, and using the voice beyond their capabilities may also affect the musician’s health.

Many factors are taken into account when determining the type of vocalist’s voice:
– Timbre (vocal teachers call it “voice color”).
— Tessitura (maximum capabilities and endurance of taking upper sounds).
— Articulation.
— The structure of the larynx (the consultation of the physician foniatria).
– External, behavioral and psychological characteristics of the vocalist.

Oddly enough, in our time, the subject of dreams of young men who plan to make a vocal career is a tenor. This is most likely a fashion statement. Today, it is dictated by modern composers, who often write male scores for high-pitched voices. This was not always the case. But we need to figure out which tenor is the voice?

Classical standards for singing voice types define the tenor as the highest of the male ranges, indicated by the limits “to” the first octave – “to” the second octave. But you can’t say that these boundaries are unshakable. Here we must say that the tenor is not only a classic vocal, when the tenor parts are written strictly within the range, but also a musical register for pop and rock singers, whose melodies often cross the border of the designated range.

It would be unfair to confine tenors only within the allotted range. The strength, purity, and volume of certain tenor notes allowed them, like other types, to get an additional gradation. The subtleties of distinguishing one subtype from another are available only to experienced vocal teachers. What is the tenor?

Tenor-Altino or countertenor
A voice like a boy’s, the highest of all tenors, which did not break after mutation and remained along with a low timbre. This tenor is more like a woman’s voice: a very rare phenomenon, you can call it a mistake of nature. An example of a countertenor vocal can be “Aria of The Queen of the night” performed by M. Kuznetsov.

Light tenor
The voice is also close to female vocals, but has a chest timbre. Sounds airy and easy.

Lyric tenor
The most mobile voice of all tenors with a gentle, soft and subtle coloring. A striking example of a lyrical tenor was the voice of S. Lemeshev.

Lyric-dramatic tenor
The tenor subtype is close to the lyric, but colored with overtones, much denser and more saturated.

Dramatic tenor
From the classification of tenors, it is the lowest, differing in the power of the sound and the proximity of the timbral tone to the baritone. Many operatic parts are written for the dramatic tenor (Othello, Herman from the Queen of Spades).

From the characteristics of the tenor subtypes, you can understand,
From the characteristics of the tenor subtypes, it can be understood that all of them, with the exception of the counter-tenor, differ from each other in their color and timbre. The tenor is a favorite voice for parties of heroic characters, starting with heroes-lovers and ending with heroes-liberators, heroes-fighters.

Another feature that classifies tenors will be the so-called transition areas. On these notes, the voice begins to adapt and change the way it plays. Transition notes directly depend on the structure of the voice apparatus. These are the ultimate high-pitched sounds that the singer extracts without changing the position of the chords. Each vocalist has their own individual section. It directly depends on the training of the vocal cords. The tenor is the most mobile of the types of singing voices. Therefore, the transition area for the tenor will change throughout the career.

The main mistake of novice young vocalists in determining their voice type is to try to classify it only by range. When a specialist is engaged in the definition, he will certainly evaluate the timbre of the voice. Professionals call the timbre “colors of sound”. It is the timbre that helps the voice reproduce notes that are accurate in pitch and full in strength. It often happens that one listening is not enough for an accurate “diagnosis”. After all, the timbre is also a variable characteristic. But this is more about classical vocals.

And for the performance of modern music, without touching the Opera parts, you do not need to specify what your tenor is. The voice can simply be defined as high, medium, or low. This gradation has long been practiced in the West. In it, the tenor is simply by definition the highest of the male voices.

Such a Convention gives ground for chagrin to young men who have a low-or medium-register voice by nature, not such as a tenor. The voice is a musical instrument, and any instrument has a part in the orchestra. Even among modern musical compositions, unfortunately, today focused mainly on tenors, you can hear unique melodies written for both baritone and bass.

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